The Chambers Biographical Dictionary describes him as "the keenest thinker and boldest theologian of the 12th Century". Abelard, originally called "Pierre le Pallet", was born c. As a boy, he learned quickly. His father, a knight called Berenger, encouraged Pierre to study the liberal artswherein he excelled at the art of dialectic a branch of philosophywhich, at that time, consisted chiefly of the logic of Aristotle transmitted through Latin channels.
Instead of entering a military career, as his father had done, Abelard became an academic. During his early academic pursuits, Abelard wandered throughout France, debating and learning, so as in his own words "he became such a one as the Peripatetics. AroundAbelard's travels finally brought him quanta è lunità della BPH Apollo Alliance Paris.
In the great cathedral school of Notre-Dame de Paris before the current cathedral was actually builthe was taught for a while by William of Champeauxthe disciple of Anselm of Laon quanta è lunità della BPH Apollo Alliance to be confused with Saint Anselma leading proponent of Realism. Retrospectively, Abelard portrays William as having turned from approval to hostility when Abelard proved soon able to defeat the master in argument; [a] Abelard was, however, closer to William's thought than this account suggests.
His teaching was notably successful, though for a time he had to give it up and spend time in Brittany, the strain proving too great for his constitution. On his return, afterhe found William lecturing at the hermitage of Saint-Victor, just outside the Île de la Citéand there they once again became rivals, with Abelard challenging William over his theory of universals.
Abelard was once more victorious, and Abelard was almost able to hold the position of master at Notre Dame. For a short time, however, William was able to prevent Abelard from lecturing in Paris. Abelard accordingly was forced to resume his school at Melun, which he was then able to move, from c. From his success in dialectic, he next turned to theology and in moved to Laon to attend the lectures of Anselm on Biblical exegesis and Christian doctrine.
Anselm forbade him to continue this teaching, and Abelard returned to Paris where, in aroundhe became master of the cathedral school of Notre Dame though the present cathedral was not yet begun and a canon of Sens the cathedral of the archdiocese to which Paris belonged.
Distinguished in figure and manners, Abelard was seen surrounded by crowds—it is said thousands of students—drawn from all countries by the fame of his teaching.
Enriched by the offerings of his pupils, and entertained with universal admiration, he came, as he says, to think himself the only undefeated philosopher in the world. But a change in his fortunes was at hand. In his devotion to science, he had always lived a very regular life, enlivened only by philosophical debate: now, at the height of his fame, he encountered romance.
Héloïse d'Argenteuil lived within the precincts of Notre-Dame, under the care of her uncle, the secular canon Fulbert. She was quanta è lunità della BPH Apollo Alliance for her knowledge of classical letterswhich extended beyond Latin to Greek and Hebrew. Abelard sought a place in Fulbert's house and, in orbegan an affair with Héloïse.
The affair interfered with his career, and Abelard himself boasted of his conquest. Once Fulbert found out, he separated them, but they continued to meet in secret. Héloïse became pregnant and was sent by Abelard to be looked after by his family in Brittany, where she gave birth to a son whom she named Astrolabe after the scientific instrument.
To appease Fulbert, Abelard proposed a secret marriage so as not to mar his career prospects. Héloïse initially opposed it, quanta è lunità della BPH Apollo Alliance the couple were married.
When Fulbert publicly disclosed the marriage, and Héloïse denied it, Abelard sent Héloïse to the convent at Argenteuilwhere she had been brought up, in order to protect her from her uncle. Héloïse dressed as a nun and shared the nun's life, though she was not veiled. Fulbert, most probably believing that Abelard wanted to be rid of Héloïse by forcing her to become a nun, arranged for a band of men to break into Abelard's room one night and castrate him.
Roscellinus would later belittle Abelard for getting castrated. Héloïse sent letters to Abelard, questioning why she must submit to a religious life for which she had no calling.
In the Abbey of Saint-Denisthe year-old Abelard sought to bury himself as a monk with his woes out of sight. His lectures, now framed in a devotional spirit, and with lectures on theology as well as his previous lectures on logic, were once again heard by crowds of students, and his old influence seemed to have returned.
Using his studies of the Bible and — in his view — inconsistent writings of the leaders of the church as quanta è lunità della BPH Apollo Alliance basis, he wrote Sic et Non Yes and No.
No sooner had he published his theological lectures the Theologia Summi Boni than his adversaries picked up on his rationalistic interpretation of the Trinitarian dogma. Two pupils of Anselm of LaonAlberich of Reims and Lotulf of Lombardy, instigated proceedings against Abelard, charging him with the heresy of Sabellius in a provincial synod held at Soissons in They obtained through irregular procedures an official condemnation of his teaching, and Abelard was made to burn the Theologia himself.
He was then sentenced to perpetual confinement in a monastery other than his own, but quanta è lunità della BPH Apollo Alliance seems to have been agreed in advance that this sentence would be revoked almost immediately, because after a few days in the convent of St.
Medard at Soissons, Abelard returned to St. Life in his own monastery proved no more congenial than quanta è lunità della BPH Apollo Alliance. For this Abelard himself was partly responsible. He took a sort of malicious pleasure in irritating the monks. As if for the sake of a joke, he cited Bede to prove that the believed founder of the monastery of St Denis, Dionysius the Areopagite had been Bishop of Corinthwhile the other monks relied upon the statement of the Abbot Hilduin that he had been Bishop of Athens.
When this historical heresy led to the inevitable persecution, Abelard wrote a letter to the Abbot Adam in which he preferred to the authority of Bede that of Eusebius of Caesarea 's Historia Ecclesiastica and St.
Jeromeaccording to whom Dionysius, Bishop of Corinthwas distinct from Dionysius the Areopagite, bishop of Athens and founder of the abbey, though, in deference to Bede, he suggested that the Areopagite might also have been bishop of Quanta è lunità della BPH Apollo Alliance.
Adam accused him of insulting both the quanta è lunità della BPH Apollo Alliance and quanta è lunità della BPH Apollo Alliance Kingdom of France which had Denis quanta è lunità della BPH Apollo Alliance its patron saint ; life in the monastery grew intolerable for Abelard, and he was finally allowed to leave. Abelard initially lodged at St Ayoul of Provins, where the prior was a friend.
Then, after the death of Abbot Adam in MarchAbelard was able to gain permission from the new quanta è lunità della BPH Apollo Alliance, Sugerto live "in whatever solitary place he wished". In a deserted place near Nogent-sur-Seine in Champagnehe built a cabin of stubble and quanta è lunità della BPH Apollo Alliance, and a simple oratory dedicated to the Trinity and became a hermit.
When his retreat became known, students flocked from Paris, and covered the wilderness around him with their tents and huts. He began to teach again there.
The oratory was rebuilt in wood and stone and rededicated as the Oratory of the Paraclete. Abelard remained at the Paraclete for about five years. His combination of the teaching of secular arts with his profession as a monk was heavily criticized by other men of religion, and Abelard contemplated flight outside Christendom altogether. The region was inhospitable, the domain a prey to outlaws, the house itself savage and disorderly.
During this time, however, Abelard came back into contact with Héloïse. In AprilAbbot Suger of St Denis succeeded in his plans to have the nuns, including Héloïse, expelled from the convent at Argenteuil, in order to take over the property for St Denis. Héloïse had meanwhile become the head of a new foundation of nuns called the Paraclete. Abelard became the abbot of the new community and provided it with a rule and with a justification of the nun's way of life; in this he emphasized the virtue of literary study.
He also provided books of hymns he had composed, and in the early s he and Héloïse composed a collection of their own love letters and religious correspondence.
Lack of success at St Gildas made Abelard decide to take up public teaching again although he remained for a few more years, officially, Abbot of St Gildas. It is not entirely certain what he then did, but given that John of Salisbury heard Abelard lecture on dialectic init is presumed that he returned to Paris and resumed teaching on the Montagne Sainte-Geneviève. It is presumed his lectures included logic, at least until[c] but were mainly concerned with the Bible, Christian doctrine, and ethics.
Then he produced further drafts of his Theologia in which he analyzed the sources of belief in the Trinity and praised the pagan philosophers of classical antiquity for their virtues and for their discovery by the use of reason of many fundamental aspects of Christian revelation. At some point in this time Abelard wrote, among other things, his famous Historia Calamitatum.
This moved Héloïse to write her first Letter;  the first being followed by the two other Letters, in which she finally accepted the part of resignation, which, now as a brother to a sister, Abelard commended to her. Sometime beforeAbelard published quanta è lunità della BPH Apollo Alliance masterpiece, Ethica or Scito te ipsum Know Thyselfwhere he analyzes the idea of sin and that actions are not what a man will be judged for but intentions.
Paul 's epistle to the Romans, where he expands on the meaning of Christ 's life. Abelard was to face, however, another challenge which would put a final end to his teaching career. Afterit is not clear whether Abelard had stopped teaching, or whether he perhaps continued with all except his lectures on logic until as late as Whatever the exact timing, a process was instigated by William of St Thierrywho discovered what he considered to be heresies in some of Abelard's teaching.
In spring he wrote to the Bishop of Chartres and to Bernard of Clairvaux denouncing them. Another, less distinguished, theologian, Thomas of Morignyquanta è lunità della BPH Apollo Alliance produced at the same time a list of Abelard's supposed heresies, quanta è lunità della BPH Apollo Alliance at Bernard's instigation.
Bernard's complaint mainly is that Abelard has applied logic where it is not applicable, and that is illogical. In so doing, Abelard put himself into the position of the wronged party and forced Bernard to defend himself from the accusation of slander.
Bernard avoided this trap, however: on the eve of the council, he called a private meeting of the assembled bishops and persuaded them to condemn, one by one, each of the heretical propositions he attributed to Abelard.
When Abelard appeared at the council the next day, he was presented with a list of condemned propositions imputed to him. Refusing to answer to these propositions, Abelard left the assembly, appealed to the Pope, and set off for Rome, hoping that the Pope would be more supportive. However, this hope was unfounded.
On 16 JulyPope Innocent II issued a bull quanta è lunità della BPH Apollo Alliance Abelard and his followers and imposing perpetual silence on him, and in a second document he ordered Abelard to be confined in a monastery and his books to be burned. Abelard was saved from this sentence, however, by Peter the Venerableabbot of Cluny.
Abelard had stopped there, on his way to Rome, before the papal condemnation had reached France. Peter persuaded Abelard, already old, to give up his journey and stay at the monastery. Peter managed to arrange a reconciliation with Bernard, to have the sentence quanta è lunità della BPH Apollo Alliance excommunication lifted, and to persuade Innocent that it was enough if Abelard remained under the aegis of Cluny.
Abelard was treated not as a condemned heretic, but as a revered and wise quanta è lunità della BPH Apollo Alliance. Marcel, near Chalon-sur-Saônebefore he died on 21 April Abelard was first buried at St. Marcel, but his remains were soon carried off secretly to the Paraclete, and given over to the loving care of Héloïse, who in time came herself to rest beside quanta è lunità della BPH Apollo Alliance in The bones of the pair were moved more than once afterwards, but they were preserved even through the vicissitudes of the French Revolutionand now are presumed to lie in the well-known tomb in Père Lachaise Cemetery in eastern Paris.
By tradition, lovers or lovelorn singles leave letters at the crypt, in tribute to the couple or in hope of finding true love.
This remains, however, disputed. The Oratory of the Paraclete claims Abelard and Héloïse are buried there and that what exists in Père-Lachaise is merely a monument, or cenotaph.
According to Père-Lachaise, the remains of both lovers were transferred from the Oratory in the early 19th century and reburied in the famous crypt on their grounds. Catholicism portal. The general importance of Abelard lies in his having fixed more decisively than anyone before him the scholastic manner of philosophizing, with the object of giving a formal, rational expression quanta è lunità della BPH Apollo Alliance received ecclesiastical doctrine.
Though his particular interpretations may have been condemned, they were conceived in essentially the same spirit as the general scheme of thought afterwards elaborated in the 13th century with approval from the heads of the Church.
He helped to establish the ascendancy of the philosophical authority of Aristotle which became firmly established in the half-century after his death.